Premorbid adjustment associates with cognitive and functional deficits in individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis

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Premorbid social and academic adjustment are important predictors of cognitive and functional performance in schizophrenia. Whether this relationship is also present in individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis is the focus of the present study. Using baseline data from a randomised clinical trial (N = 146) this study investigated associations between premorbid adjustment and neuro- and social cognition and functioning in UHR individuals aged 18–40 years. Patients were evaluated with the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS) comprising a social and an academic domain. Using validated measures neurocognition was assessed in the domains of processing speed, executive function, attention, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, and working memory along with estimated IQ. Social cognitive domains assessed were theory of mind, emotion recognition, and attributional bias. Functional assessment comprised the domains of social- and role functioning, functional capacity, and quality of life. Linear regression analyses revealed poor premorbid academic adjustment to be associated with poorer performance in processing speed, working memory, attention, full scale IQ, and verbal IQ. Poor premorbid social adjustment was associated with theory of mind deficits. Additionally, both premorbid adjustment domains were associated with social- and role functioning and quality of life. Corroborating evidence from schizophrenia samples, our findings indicate poor premorbid adjustment to correlate with deficits in specific cognitive and functional domains in UHR states. Early premorbid adjustment difficulties may therefore indicate a poor cognitive and functional trajectory associated with significant impairments in early and established psychotic disorders suggesting targets for primary intervention.

Udgave nummer1
StatusUdgivet - 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
The study has been funded through The Danish Council for Independent Research (DFF-4004-00314); TrygFonden (ID 108119); the Mental Health Services in the Capital Region of Denmark; the research fund of the Capital Region of Denmark; the Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research, CINS (R155-2013-16337).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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